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Table 4 Overall accuracy of gene signatures in distinct patient populations

From: Systematic comparison of published host gene expression signatures for bacterial/viral discrimination

Parameter Bacterial vs. non-bacterial Viral vs. non-viral
Accuracy (%) p-value N (subjects/studies) Accuracy (%) p-value N (subjects/studies)
All subjects 79 (78–80) - 2887/31 84 (83–85) - 3584/37
Pathogen - - - - - -
All Bacteriala 81 (79–83) - 951/31 - - -
Burkholderia pseudomallei 90 (85–93) 0.010 45/2 - - -
Escherichia coli 84 (79–89) 0.972 64/7 - - -
Staphylococcus aureus 83 (79–87) 0.972 118/8 - - -
Staphylococcus, other 91 (88–94) < 0.001 58/4 - - -
Streptococcus pneumoniae 83 (76–89) 0.972 39/6 - - -
Streptococcus, other 82 (75–88) 0.972 43/8 - - -
 Intracellular bacteria 83 (79–88) 0.178 100/4 - - -
 Extracellular bacteria 84 (81–86) 0.173 415/17 - - -
All Virala - - - 82 (80–83) - 1679/37
 Adenovirus - - - 74 (62–84) 0.030 30/2
 Enterovirus - - - 84 (76–89) 0.937 58/3
 Influenza - - - 89 (87–90) < 0.001 431/19
 Rhinovirus - - - 74 (70–78) < 0.001 209/9
 RSV - - - 81 (79–84) 0.083 406/13
Age - - - - - -
Adulta 82 (80–83) - 1183/18 88 (86–89) - 1268/14
12–18 years 82 (78–85) 0.299 132/6 88 (84–92) 0.631 95/6
2–11 years 70 (67–73) < 0.001 373/7 79 (76–82) < 0.001 352/10
3 months–1 year 73 (69–77) < 0.001 183/8 80 (78–82) < 0.001 576/17
<3 months 85 (82–88) 0.002 320/8 81 (79–84) < 0.001 547/16
Race - - - - - -
All Subjectsa 77 (76–79) - 1389/12 80 (78–81) - 1157/12
 Asian 84 (79–89) 0.007 87/9 84 (76–91) 0.277 33/7
 Black 79 (75–82) 0.059 311/11 77 (73–81) 0.277 254/12
 White 76 (73–78) 0.028 684/11 80 (78–82) 0.784 686/12
 Other 71 (64–78) 0.010 72/5 74 (67-82) 0.277 79/6
Ethnicity - - - - - -
Not Hispanic or Latinoa 75 (73–77) - 407/4 79 (77–81) - 474/5
Hispanic or Latino 80 (77–84) < 0.001 302/9 85 (81–88) < 0.001 220/11
Severity - - - - - -
Non-ICUa 73 (66–79) - 43/2 83 (79–86) - 117/3
ICU 69 (66–73) 0.279 182/8 86 (82–90) 0.105 107/7
  1. Average accuracies and 95% confidence intervals of bacterial and viral classification, stratified by different clinical parameters. Only groups with at least fifteen subjects across at least two datasets were evaluated. P-values represent statistical significance, comparing the group to its reference population. N is represented by the number of subjects/the number of datasets used for validation. The “Intracellular Bacteria” group includes subjects with B. pseudomallei, S. typhi, and Mycoplasma infection. The “Extracellular Bacteria” group includes all other subjects with bacterial infection for which an identified pathogen was available. For comparisons related to “Race,” the “All Subjects” group represents all subjects for which racial information was available. a Indicates the reference population used for determination of significance