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Table 3 Methodological characteristics of chemical and biological therapeutic tools*

From: Non-coding RNAs: a key to future personalized molecular therapy?

Therapeutic modulation Chemical-biological characteristics Strategies Delivery system Clinical application References
2'-Ome AMOs Modified 2-OH residues of the ribose 2'-O-methyl Inhibition of mature miRNA RNA-liposome complex; conjugation of a cholesterol Silence oncomiR [8183]
2'-MOE AMOs Modified 2-OH residues of the ribose 2'-O-methoxyethyl Inhibition of mature miRNA Oligonucleotide-liposome complex; conjugation of a cholesterol Silence oncomiR [8183]
AMOs (RNase H-based) Contains a short stretch of centrally located 2' deoxy residues Inhibition of pri-miRNA Oligonucleotide-liposome complex; conjugation of a cholesterol Silence polycistronic miRNA cluster [61, 84]
LNA-antagomiR Contains one or more nucleotide building blocks in which an extra methylene bridge fixes the ribose moiety either in C3'-endo or C2'-endo conformation1 Inhibition of mature miRNA Unconjugated Silence oncomiR [63]
pre-miRNA-like shRNAs Natural pre-miRNA, for a more persistent miRNA replacement Replacement of mature miRNA Plasmid or viral vector with either polymerase II or III promoter upstream of a shRNA Restore tumor suppressor miRNA [85, 86]
Double-stranded miRNA mimetics Equivalent to endogenous Dicer product; analogous structure to an siRNA Replacement of mature miRNA Oligonucleotide-liposome complex; conjugation of a cholesterol; linking with delivery proteins; other nanotechnology-based conjugation; transgene approach Restore tumor suppressor miRNA [87]
Synthetic miRNAs Designed related target mRNA Selected silence target Conjugation of a protein interaction target Tumor suppressor role [64, 65]
'miRNA sponges' Multiple miRNA binding sites into the 3' UTR of a reporter gene encoding destabilized GFP driven by the CMV promoter Inhibition of mature miRNA cluster Sponge plasmid vector Silence oncomiR family [66]
  1. *Abbreviations: GFP, green fluorescent protein; CMV, cytomegalovirus.
  2. 1C3'-endo (beta-D-LNA) or C2'-endo (alpha-L-LNA) stereoisomer.