Skip to main content

Table 1 Classification of stroke subtypes from TOAST [12]

From: Three periods of one and a half decade of ischemic stroke susceptibility gene research: lessons we have learned

Subtype Classification
1 Large-artery atherosclerosis (embolus/thrombosis)
2 Small-vessel occlusion (lacune)
3 Cardioembolism (high-risk/medium-risk)
4 Stroke of other determined etiology
5 Stroke of undetermined etiology
     (a) Two or more causes identified
     (b) Negative evaluation
     (c) Incomplete evaluation
  1. The classification of subtypes 1 to 4 includes possible or probable cases according to the results of ancillary studies as well as certain diagnoses.