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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and mean values and χ2 testsa of variables related to metabolic comorbidity for persons with psychotic disorders and their matched controls

From: Metabolome in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a general population-based study

  Schizophrenia Other non-affective psychosis Affective psychosis
Variable Cases Controls P-value Cases Controls P-value Cases Controls P-value
Age (years) 53.7 (12.9) 53.7 (12.9) NS 54.7 (14.3) 54.7 (14.3) NS 54.7 (14.8) 54.7 (14.9) NS
Sex          
   Male 19 19 NS 20 20 NS 23 23 NS
   Female 26 26   37 37   14 14  
Antipsychotic medication use          
   Current 34 (75.6%) 0 (0%) <0.001 24 (42.1%) 0 (0%) <0.001 8 (21.6%) 0 (0%) 0.003
   Atypical antipsychotics 8 (17.0%) 0 (0%)   4 (7.0%) 0 (0%)   0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
   Lifetime 44 (97.8%) NA   50 (87.7%) NA   34 (91.9%) NA  
Type 2 diabetes 11 (24.4%) 3 (6.7%) 0.020 8 (14.0%) 4 (7.0%) NS 0 (0%) 3 (8.1%) NS
Metabolic syndrome 19 (42.2%) 13 (28.9%) NS 25 (43.9%) 15 (26.3%) 0.048 10 (27.0%) 11 (29.7%) NS
Metabolic comorbidityb 22 (48.9%) 15 (33.3%) NS 33 (57.9%) 21 (36.8%) 0.024 14 (37.8%) 14 (37.8%) NS
Daily smoking 20 (44.4%) 12 (26.7%) NS 17 (29.8%) 15 (26.3%) NS 10 (27.0%) 9 (24.3%) NS
Daily use of vegetables 20 (45.5%)d 32 (71.1%) 0.014 23 (41.1%)d 35 (61.4%) 0.031 19 (51.4%) 20 (54.1%) NS
Daily use of milk with high fat % 20 (46.5%)e 16 (36.4%) NS 21 (37.5%)d 16 (28.6%)d NS 15 (40.5%) 12 (32.4%) NS
Daily use of vegetable oils 27 (62.8%)e 31 (68.9%) NS 35 (61.4%)d 42 (75.0%) NS 25 (67.6%) 22 (59.5%) NS
Daily use of cheese with high fat content 8 (19.1%)f 33.3% (15) NS 16 (28.6%)d 14 (25.0%)d NS 9 (24.3%) 16 (43.2%) NS
Body mass index (kg/m2) 28.4 (5.8) 26.1 (3.3) NS 28.8 (6.2) 26.6 (3.9) NS 27.5 (3.7) 26.4 (4.1) NS
Systolic blood pressure 128.4 (20.1) 134.3 (20.7) NS 131.6 (17.8) 140.8 (25.4) NS 128.1 (18.8) 135.4 (20.1) NS
Diastolic blood pressure 79.8 (10.7) 80.5 (12.0) NS 82.3 (10.5) 82.7 (10.0) NS 79.9 (10.4) 81.5 (9.9) NS
Plasma glucose (mg/dl) 109.9 (31.9) 97.2 (12.3) 0.016 106.5 (42.5) 101.6 (15.0) NS 97.0 (12.0) 100.2 (14.6) NS
Serum cotinine (μg/l) 216.2 (317.2) 96.8 (207.1) 0.030 151.4 (249.4) 121.2 (253.5) NS 124.5 (234.2) 150.4 (284.6) NS
Serum total cholesterol (mg/dl)c 226.0 (50.0) 229.7 (37.9) NS 232.3 (41.6) 224.7 (39.6) NS 230.0 (40.0) 237.1 (37.0) NS
Serum HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 45.3 (13.5) 54.5 (14.5) 0.003 49.7 (14.3) 51.6 (14.6) NS 45.0 (13.0) 50.5 (16.7) NS
Serum triglycerides (mg/dl) 197.4 (130.2) 120.6 (55.2) 0.006 156.5 (112.6) 125.9 (81.2) 0.044 151.4 (97.2) 144.5 (85.0) NS
Serum insulin (μIU/ml) 16.6 (19.6) 7.6 (5.4) <0.001 11.9 (12.4) 8.4 (5.8) NS 9.6 (6.1) 9.3 (7.2) NS
HOMA-IR 4.81 (6.98) 1.84 (1.28) <0.001 4.19 (10.99) 2.17 (1.74) NS 2.33 (1.53) 2.42 (2.25) NS
Fasting time (hours) 6.40 (4.17) 7.13 (3.89) NS 9.29 (5.98) 7.87 (4.23) NS 6.43 (3.98) 8.37 (5.06) NS
Waist circumference (cm) 98.8 (15.1) 89.5 (11.7) 0.003 97.4 (16.4) 90.8 (12.4) 0.037 97.4 (12.2) 93.1 (12.6) NS
C-reactive protein (mg/l) 2.5 (2.8) 1.7 (3.3) 0.004 3.7 (4.9) 2.2 (4.3) 0.017 1.9 (2.9) 1.0 (1.4) NS
BDI score 13.5 (10.9) 5.7 (4.4) <0.001 14.9 (12.3) 6.5 (6.1) <0.001 11.1 ( 9.3) 6.0 (5.6) 0.029
  1. Standard deviations for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables are reported in parentheses. aP-values from χ2 tests for categorical and Mann-Whitney U tests for continuous variables. bMetabolic comorbidity: type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or obesity (BMI ≥30). cTo convert cholesterol to mmol/l, multiply values by 0.0259; to convert triglycerides to mmol/l, multiply value by 0.0113; to convert glucose to mmol/l, multiply values by 0.0555; and to convert insulin to pmol/l, multiply values by 6.945. dInformation missing from one participant. eInformation missing from two participants. fInformation missing from three participants. Abbreviations: BDI, Beck Depression Inventory [26]; BMI, body mass index; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment index; NA, not applicable (information on lifetime antipsychotic exposure was not available from controls); NS, not statistically significant.