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Table 1 Types of DTC genetic tests

From: Health care providers and direct-to-consumer access and advertising of genetic testing in the United States

Types of DTC genetic tests Definition of testing
Health-related Singe-gene disorders
(diagnostic, pre-symptomatic, or carrier testing)
Tests intended for diagnostic, pre-symptomatic or carrier status purposes. Examples include tests for cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, BRCA mutations, phenylketonuria, and fanconi anemia
  Drug-response (pharmacogenomics) Tests that predict an individual's response to drugs such as warfarin, Abacavir, clopidogrel, and fluorouracil
  Disease susceptibility or progression Tests that estimate the absolute or relative risk of complex disorders such as diabetes, Alzheimer's, coronary artery disease, cancer, lupus, and psoriasis. Tests for susceptibility to and/or progression of infectious and vector-borne diseases (for example, malaria, HIV/AIDs, leprosy or norovirus)
  Nutrigenomics Tests that estimate an individuals' response to specific nutrients on the basis of their genotype
Non-health related Ancestry Tests intended to provide information on an individual's genetic ancestry and geographical origins
  Genetic-relatedness Tests that determine the biological relatedness between individuals, such as paternity or maternity testing
  Non-health-related traits Tests intended to provide information on phenotypic traits such as ear-wax type, hair curl, and eye curl, as well as athletic performance, artistic performance, cognitive and personality traits