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Table 2 Promising salivary biomarkers for other diseases discovered using transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics

From: Salivary biomarker development using genomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches

Approach   Markers Sensitivity/specificity (%)/AUC
Transcriptomics Affymetrix array discovery and qRT-PCR validation (pancreatic cancer) [5] KRAS, MBD3L2, ACRV1, DPM1 90.0/95.0/0.97
  Microarray discovery and qRT-PCR verification and pre-validation (lung cancer) [84] CCNI, EGFR, FGF19, FRS2, GREB1 93.75/82.8/0.93
  ELISA assessment (periodontal disease) [81] MIP-1α 94/92.7/0.94
  Multiplex protein array discovery. Markers for distinguishing high and low responders to treatment for gingivitis (periodontal disease) [61] IL-6, IL-8 NR/NR/0.81 (HR) and 0.72 (LR)
Proteomics Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS-MS (lung cancer) [59] Calprotectin, AZGP1, haptoglobin hp2 88.5/92.3/0.9
Combination proteomic/transcriptomic approaches Discovery by 2D-DIGE and RT-PCR/Affymetrix, validation by qRT-PCR (breast cancer) [14] mRNAs: CSTA, TPT1, IGF2BP1, GRM1, GRIK1, H6PD, MDM4, S100A8  
Protein: CA6 83/97/92% accuracy   
Metabolomics Discovery by CE-TOF-MS-based metabolomics (pancreatic cancer) [7] Leucine with isoleucine, tryptophan, valine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, glutamine, aspartic acid NR/NR/0.99
  Discovery by CE-TOF-MS-based metabolomics (breast cancer) [7] NR NR/NR/0.97
  Discovery by SERS (lung cancer) [17] Unidentified peak wavelengths; 822, 884, 909, 925, 1009, 1,077, 1,369, 1,393, 1,721 cm-1 94/81/86% accuracy
  1. AUC, area under curve; CE-TOF-MS, capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HR, high responder; LC-MS-MS, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; LR, low responder; NR, not reported; qRT-PCR, quantitative reverse transcription PCR; RT-PCR, reverse transcription PCR; SERS, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy; 2D-DIGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis.