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Table 1 Parental age at conception and gestation, and phenotypes of affected subjects and of typical BOS.

From: De novo truncating mutations in ASXL3 are associated with a novel clinical phenotype with similarities to Bohring-Opitz syndrome

  Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3 Subject 4 BOS
Parental age, years 45/44 30/29 24/29 26/26  
Gestation 38 2/7 weeks; poor fetal growth; polyhydramnios 39 weeks, breech birth 38 weeks, C-section 40 weeks, spontaneous vaginal delivery  
Size at birth ~1% ~1% 40% Weight 50%; length 25 to 50% Approximately 1%
Gastrointestinal Gastric tube feeds for 8 months, gastro-esophageal reflux Gastric tube feeds first month No obvious difficulties Difficulty latching on from birth; poor oral feeding resulted in admission at age 8 weeks for failure to thrive; gastro-esophageal reflux; Nissen fundoplication and G-tube placed Feeding difficulties
Craniofacial features Arched, thin eyebrows; high, narrow palate; low, posteriorly rotated ears; microcephaly; anteverted nares, large fontanels; retroganthia; long eyelashes Arched eyebrows; high, narrow palate; low, posteriorly rotated ears; microcephaly; anteverted nares; hypertelorism; short nose; gingival hyperplasia; sparse hair; scaly scalp; hyperopia Prominent forehead/frontal bossing; short nose with anteverted nares Prominent forehead; arched eyebrows; hypoplastic alae nasi; low-set ears; high and narrow palate High, narrow palate; low-set, posteriorly rotated ears; microcephaly; trignocephaly; anteverted nares; prominent eyes; upslanting palpebral fissures; depressed nasal bridge
Somatic features Ulnar deviation of hands at rest; deep palmar and plantar creases; hypertonia; bladder dysfunction; testes normally descended Ulnar deviation of hands; deep palmar creases; hypotonia; clenched hands; undescended testes Mild global hypotonia Exotropia; hirsutism; supranumerary nipple; low truncal tone with abnormally fluctuating tone in limbs; no clonus; mild ulnar deviation of the hands; deep palmar creases and clenching of hands, less prominent over time High myopia; hirsutism; 'BOS' posture: exorotation and/or adduction of the shoulders; flexion at the elbows; flexion at the wrists; and ulnar deviation of the hands and/or fingers at the MCP joints
Post-natal growth & development Weight, length & OFC all -4.5 to -5.0 SD; psychomotor delay. Died aged 9 months. Size < 1%; a severe psychomotor delay Normal growth; global developmental delay with intellectual disability Age 41.5 months: OFC < 2nd%; 50th % for age 1 year; Length, weight 10 to 25 th percentile; unable to sit independently; non-verbal; no sign language; mostly G-tube fed Growth retardationa; psychomotor delay; high rate of infant mortality
Brain imaging results     Global mild white-matter volume loss with normal myelination; secondary brainstem hypoplasia; hypoplasia/dysplasia of bilateral cerebellar tonsils; mild inferior vermian hypoplasia; normal MR spectroscopy Enlarged ventricles, agenesis of corpus callosum, Dandy-Walker malformation, delayed myelination and cortical atrophy
Laboratory testing with non-diagnostic results NIPBL sequencing (Cornelia de Lange) aCGH; urine oligosaccharide; sequencing panel for Noonan, Prader-Willi, cardiofaciocutaneous, and Costello syndromes; thin-layer chromatography for fucosidosis, mannosidosis, aspartylglucosaminuria, GM1- and GM2-gangliosidosis, galactosialidosis, Schindler and Pompe disease; [AU What does 'M' stand for here? Are these Schindler disease and Pompe disease? Ms have been removed ] electrophoresis for congenital disorders of glycosylation SNP aCGH; methylation for Angelman; plasma and urine creatine and guanidinoacetate; urine purine and polyol panels; plasma homocysteine 46, XX; SNP aCGH; Sequencing panel for congenital disorders of glycosylation; N-glycans; methylation for Angelman syndrome; MECP2 sequencing; muscle biopsy gave normal electron and light microscopy results; urinary organic acids; plasma amino acids; CPK  
  1. aCGH, array-comparative genomic hybridizationl BOS, Boehring-Opitz; CPK, creatine phosphokinase; G-tube; gastric tube; MCP, metacarpophalangeal; MECP, methyl CpG binding protein; MR, magnetic resonance; OFC, occipitofrontal circumference; SD, standard deviation; SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphism.
  2. Features shared by at least two subjects and BOS are in italics.