Core signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer. The pathways and processes whose component genes are genetically altered in most pancreatic cancers based on whole-exome sequencing are shown. Although some genes may correspond to a single pathway (for example, KRAS2 mutations and the KRAS signaling core pathway) others may have a role in more than one pathway (for example, TP53 mutations and the apoptosis, DNA damage, and JNK core signaling pathways). Therapeutic targeting of one or more of these pathways, rather than specific gene alterations that occur within a pathway, provides a new way of treating pancreatic cancer. TGF-β, transforming growth factor β.