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Table 1 A selection of recent outbreaks*

From: Genomics and outbreak investigation: from sequence to consequence

Features Disease or pathogen When Where Scale Comments
Airborne, point source Legionnaire's disease July 2012 Stoke on Trent, UK <10 cases Likely source a hot tub
Airborne, propagated human-to-human Measles 2012 to now South Wales, UK >500 cases Subsequent to poor take-up of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine
Airborne, propagated human-to-human Bordetella pertussis 2011 to now England and Wales, UK >2,000 cases Perhaps related to waning immunity in adults
Airborne, propagated human-to-human Bovine tuberculosis 2006 Birmingham, UK <10 cases Spread through social links, including nightclub
Blood-borne Hepatitis B 2011 Swansea, UK ≥4 cases Link between cases unclear
Bloodstream infection, common source Anthrax 2009 to 2012 Europe, including UK 100s of cases Thought be associated with contaminated batch of heroin
Exposure to animal feces E. coli O157 September 2012 Sutton Coldfield, UK <10 cases Contact between humans and animals in suburban park
Food-borne, point source Salmonella Newport Early 2012 England, UK >35 cases Linked to consumption of watermelon
Hospital-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa Late 2011 to early 2012 Northern Ireland, UK 4 babies Associated with contaminated hospital water supplies
Waterborne Cholera 2010 to now Haiti   Occurred 10 months after powerful earthquake
Waterborne Cholera 2008 to now Zimbabwe   Exacerbated by consequences of economic collapse, including poor water sanitation
Zoonotic, animal-to-human spread Influenza H7N9 April 2013 China >11 cases Virus type known to be circulating in birds
  1. *This list is drawn largely from the BBC news website [58] and is illustrative rather than exhaustive.