A general schema for clinical proteomics. To be successful, clinical proteomic projects must link observed phenotypes to modern molecular medicine through the analysis of complex proteoforms. Clinical phenotypes are affected by both familial inheritance (genotype) and environmental effects (that is, there can be differing molecular causes for the same underlying disease). In bottom-up proteomic analyses, the proteins in samples are digested into peptides, and inferences are then made about the native proteome. Owing to its ease of implementation, bottom-up proteomics is the most widely implemented technique in proteomic research. In top-down proteomic analyses, the protein molecules are analyzed in their intact state, providing a higher degree of mechanistic connection with disease. Proteomic analyses of native protein complexes provide the strongest connection between molecular mechanism and disease; however, considerable technical advances are needed before this next generation of top-down proteomic approaches can be widely used. In this clinical proteomic workflow, information gathered from protein analysis may be used to catalyze the development of new techniques to manage human health. Adapted partly from .