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Table 1 Selected applications of intact protein analysis in translational research

From: The emergence of top-down proteomics in clinical research


Disease or condition

Application description



Bacterial meningitis

Relative quantification of intact Neisseria meningitidis type IV pilus proteoforms




H-D exchange-enabled analysis of fALS SOD1 variant protein dynamics



Myocardial dysfunction

Relative quantification of intact cardiac troponin I proteoforms



Renal carcinoma

Tissue profiling of intact proteins in cancerous versus healthy kidneys


Hendrickson and Yates

Coronary artery disease

Relative quantification of intact apolipoprotein CIII proteoforms




Relative quantification of proteoforms in plasma from healthy individuals and diabetics


  1. aExamples of laboratories applying top-down proteomic strategies to clinically related research are presented here, with references to their recent work. In this diverse research, top-down proteomics is being used to understand the dynamics of intact proteins, to measure the relative abundances of intact proteoforms and to provide mass spectrometry profiles of intact proteins directly from human tissue. In all of these cases, the information obtained by studying whole proteins has led to significant insight into human disease. fALS, familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; H-D, hydrogen-deuterium; SOD1, superoxide dismutase 1.