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Table 1 Epigenetic alterations of enhancers found in malignancies

From: Enhancer alterations in cancer: a source for a cell identity crisis

Cancer type(s) Epigenetic change Reference(s)
Colon Gains and losses of H3K4me1 [81]
Breast, cervical, colon, pancreatic, prostate, blood Gains and losses of super-enhancers [28],[82],[83]
Breast, lung, cervical Gains and losses of DNA methylation [79]
Melanoma, breast, T-cell leukemia Gains and losses of open chromatin (DNase) [26]
Breast Gains and losses of H3K4me2, open chromatin [84]
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Global chromatin compaction, reduced H3K27ac [85]
Breast, colon, laryngeal squamous cell HOTAIR overexpression, gains of H3K27me3 [86]-[88]
Hepatocellular HOTTIP overexpression, increased HOXA13 overexpression [89]
Colon CCAT1-L overexpression, chromatin looping to MYC [90],[91]