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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and general demographic parameters of study participants

From: Functional implications of microbial and viral gut metagenome changes in early stage L-DOPA-naïve Parkinson’s disease patients

  PD Control P value
Demographics
 n 31 28  
 Age (years, mean ± SD) 64.8 ± 9.5 65.6 ± 10.4 0.970
Clinical data
 UPDRS III (mean ± SD) 12.6 ± 6.9 0 ± 0 <0.001
 GIT symptoms incl. constipation (GSRS, mean ± SD) 3.4 ± 2.9 2.2 ± 2.0 0.172
 Total serum bilirubin 0.23 ± 0.03 0.23 ± 0.03 0.593
Nutritional habits
 Diet
  Omnivorous 30 [96.8%] 28 [100%]  
  Vegetarian 1 [3.2%] 0 [0%]  
  Probiotics 4 [12.9%] 1 [3.6%]  
Medication
 Amantadine 26 [83.9%] 0 [0%]  
 Dopamine agonist 11 [35.5%] 0 [0%]  
 MAO inhibitor 28 [90.3%] 0 [0%]  
 L-DOPA 0 [0%] 0 [0%]  
 Statin intake 1 [3.2%] 11 [39.3%]  
 Metformin 1 [3.2%] 3 [10.7%]  
 Acetylsalicylic acid 2 [6.5%] 7 [25.0%]  
Smoking
 No 10 [32.3%] 9 [32.1%]  
 Yes 5 [16.1%] 4 [14.3%]  
 Ex-smoker 15 [48.4%] 15 [53.6%]  
  1. UPDRS Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, GIT gastrointestinal, GSRS Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale, MAO monoamine oxidase, L-DOPA Levodopa