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Table 1 Overview of the protozoan pathogens highlighted in this review

From: Advances in omics-based methods to identify novel targets for malaria and other parasitic protozoan infections

Pathogen Disease(s) caused Current treatments Mechanism of action
Plasmodium falciparum Malaria 4-Aminoquinolines (chloroquine, amodiaquine, piperaquine) Inhibit heme detoxification
8-Aminoquinolones (primaquine, tafenaquine) Unknown
Aryl amino-alcohols (lumefantrine, mefloquine) Inhibit heme detoxification
Antifolate drugs (proguanil, pyrimethamine, sulfadoxine) Inhibit folate synthesis
Antibiotics (doxycycline, clindamycin) Inhibit protein synthesis
Napthoquinones (atovaquone) Inhibit cytochrome bc1 complex
Artemisinin compounds (artemisinin, artemether, dihydroartemisinin) Oxidative stress
Trypanosoma Chagas disease Nitroheterocyclic drugs (nifurtimox, benznidazole) Oxidative stress
Sleeping sickness Pentamidine Disrupts mitochondrial processes
Melarsoprol Inhibits trypanosomal redox metabolism and glycolysis
Suramin Disrupts trypanosomal redox metabolism and glycolysis
Eflornithine Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase
Leishmania Cutaneous, visceral, or mucosal leishmaniasis Pentavalent antimonial compounds Unclear
Amphotericin B Targets the main parasite membrane sterol
Miltefosine Interferes with cell membrane composition
Paromomycin Inhibits protein synthesis
Toxoplasma Flu-like illness, disseminated infection, congenital infection Pyrimethamine Inhibit folate synthesis
  1. For more detailed information on treatments, mechanisms of action, and mechanisms of resistance for each pathogen, please refer to the following literature: P. falciparum [3], Trypanosoma [4,5,6,7], Leishmania [8,9,10,11], and Toxoplasma [12, 13]