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Table 1 The microbial-derived metabolites and ICI responses in clinical studies

From: Role of the intestinal microbiome and microbial-derived metabolites in immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy of cancer

Metabolites Patient (n) Disease ICIs Effects References
• Fecal acetate (high)
• Fecal propionate (high)
• Fecal butyrate (high)
• Fecal valeric acid (high)
• Plasma isovaleric acid (high)
52 Solid cancer tumor Anti-PD-1 Longer PFS [48]
• Fecal propionate (high)
• Fecal butyrate (high)
Fecal lysine (high)
Fecal nicotinic acid (high)
11 NSCLC Anti-PD-1 Longer responses [49]
• Plasma butyrate (high)
40 Metastatic melanoma
Metastatic prostate carcinoma
Anti-CTLA-4 Shorter PFS [50]
• Plasma propionate (high)
45 Metastatic melanoma Anti-CTLA-4 Shorter PFS [50]
Serum kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (high) 106 Advanced melanoma
Advanced RCC
Anti-PD-1 Shorter OS [52]
3-Hydrozyanthranilic acid (low) 19 NSCLC   Longer PFS [53]
Fecal 2-pentanone (high)
Fecal tridecane (high)
11 NSCLC Anti-PD-1 Early progression [49]
Serum IDO 23 NSCLC Anti-PD-1 ICI resistance [55]
  1. ICI, immune checkpoint inhibitor; IDO, indoleamine-2,3-diozygenase; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; OS, overall survival; PFS, progression-free survival; RCC, renal cell carcinoma