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Table 1 Summary of seven dimensions of participation

From: Disentangling Public Participation In Science and Biomedicine

Dimensions Description Representative scholarly literature Contemporary cases that exemplify the participatory dimension
    Strong Weak
1. Educative dividend Learning something valuable, especially learning how to participate effectively [54, 78, 94] Zooniverse, 23andMe Match.com, BOINC
2. Goals and tasks Participants not only undertake tasks but help set goals [15, 43, 44, 67, 69, 95] Linux/Linux Foundation; PXE International Pinterest; current TV; Patients Like Me
3. Resource control Participants get to control (own or use) resources, not merely produce them [65, 9699] Second life; Mukurtu; SNPpedia Patients Like Me
4. Exit Capacity to leave without penalty and with resources [79] Global Voices; SNPpedia Facebook
5. Voice Opportunities to 'speak back' in order to influence outcomes [79, 80] Wikipedia; Apache OKCupid
6. Visible metrics Empirical demonstrations of the connection between participation and outcomes [56, 85, 90] Foldit; 23andMe Revision 3
7. Affective/communicative capacity Participants have opportunities to communicate amongst themselves to produce affect, affiliation, and sociability [9193] Instagram; PXE international; Patients Like Me Bitcoin
  1. Summary of seven dimensions of participation.